- Absence of either testis from its normal position in scrotum is called undescended testis.
- It is most common congenital abnormality found in male genitalia.
- Congenital – Undescended testis present since birth
- Acquired – testis which has migrated up that has been previously noted to be present in scrotum
- Location wise – Inguinal (groin), Intra-abdominal, Ectopic (not in path of normal descent)
Causes of undescended testis
- Developmental disorder of the gonads by either environment or genetic factors.
- Maternal smoking
- Premature birth
Effects of undescended testes
- Undescended testis of one side can affect the function of normally descended other testis also.
- Impaired semen parameters
- Impaired fertility
- Hypogonadism (testosterone deficiency)
- Tumors in the undescended testis
- Surgical treatment is mainstay of management.
- In infants and early age, surgical correction with bringing testis down into scrotum is done.
- In adults with intra-abdominal testis, and having normal opposite testis, orchiectomy is usually considered. However if both testes are intra-abdominal, surgical correction to bring testes down into scrotum is considered.