8 tips to prevent recurrent kidney stone formation

  1. Adequate fluid intake – Drinking plenty of oral liquids helps in reducing the chances of stone formation. It is estimated that nearly 50% of stone formations is due to less liquid intake. More concentrated urine leads to less dissolution of salts in it and thus leading to high chances of urinary stone formation. One should drink at least 2.5-3.0 litres of liquids per day so that the urine output remains nearly 2.0 litre/day. Citrate containing fluids such as orange and other citrus fruits decreases risks of stone formation.
  2. Calcium intake – Vitamin D deficiency often leads to excessive secretion of calcium in urine. Vitamin D supplementation along with calcium rich diet helps preventing renal stone formation. Calcium containing supplements should be taken along with the meals.
  3. Low salt intake – Avoiding excessive salt in the diet is beneficial and reduces the risk of calcium stone formation. Low salt in diet leads to less excretion of calcium in urine and hence less chances of calcium stone formation.
  4. Reduce body weight – Obesity with metabolic syndrome persons are prone to develop uric acid stones. Reducing body weight decreases the chances of uric acid stone formation.
  5. Avoid oxalate rich diet – Diet such as nuts, cashew, cocoa, chocolates, spinach, coffee, beet, rhubarb etc is rich in oxalate. Oxalate present in the food bind with the calcium in gut and does not get absorbed. Excessive oxalate gets reabsorbed in gut and get excreted in urine and increases chances of calcium oxalate stone formation. Avoiding such diet helps reducing the risk of these stone formation.
  6. Avoid excessive vitamin C intake – Excessive of vitamin C or its supplement increases the risk of stone formation. Other micronutrients such vitamin B6 helps reducing formation of stone.
  7. Get stone analysis – If someone has recently passed a stone or operated for stone disease, he/she should get the stone analysis done. It helps in knowing the composition of stone and hence doctor takes appropriate measures either with changes in food habits or starting some medicine, so as to decrease the chances of formation of stone disease.
  8. Prevent recurrent urinary tract infection – Recurrent urinary tract infection also leads to the formation of certain types of renal such as struvite stones. Preventing recurrent UTI helps decreasing the episodes of such types stone formation.

Published by Dr Varinder Attri

MS MCh (PGI Chandigarh), Urologist and Andrologist

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