•Hematuria is passing blood in urine.

•Can be Gross (visibly red urine) or microscopic hematuria (blood present in urine examination).

•Even single episode of hematuria warrants investigation as upto 50% patients with gross hematuria and 33% with microscopic hematuria show some underlying cause. 

•Various causes leading to hematuria include BPH (enlarged prostate), urinary tract infections, stone disease, cancer of urinary tract etc.

•Initial panel of tests required for evaluation of hematuria include urine examination and culture, Ultrasound/CT scan kUB, urine cytology, PSA (men>40 yrs), cystoscopy etc.  

  • Management is mainly disease specific, such as prostate surgery for BPH, antibiotics for UTI, stone management, endoscopic biopsy for bladder mass, prostate biopsy for suspicious prostate cancer.
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