General preventive measures for recurrent stone formation

Fluid intake

fluid intake should be 2.5-3.0 lit/day. Constant circadian hydration should be maintained. Urine output should be 1.5-2.0 lit/day. Person should take neutral pH beverages.

Nutritional advice

Balanced diet intake rich in vegetables and fibre diet, avoid excessive consumption of vitamins, salt intake should be restricted to <5gm/day. Calcium intake should be 1.0-1.2 gm/day and animal protein should be restricted to 0.8-1.0 gm/kg/day.

Lifestyle advice

maintain normal BMI, adequate daily physical activity should be done. Excessive fluid loss should be balanced.

Male infertility

Nearly one in six couple unable to conceive after one year of marriage.  

Male infertility is as common as female counterpart and contributes nearly 40% as the causes of the infertility in the couple.  

Male evaluation must be done at the first visit of the couple to the doctor.  

Initial evaluation consists of detailed history, physical examination including genital examination for testes, vas deferens, varicocele, phallus examination.  

A simple semen analysis gives a lot of information for future direction of investigation and management.  

Management of infertility may include simple smoking cessation, healthy lifestyle, hormone therapy, varicocele surgery, need for IUI, IVF or ICSI.  

Many couples with failure to conceive and having male infertility as a cause, can still have their own child with one of other method of assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF and TESA/TESE with ICSI.

To know more about male infertilty, go to link https://youtu.be/iFpQSyUrLNY

WORLD KIDNEY DAY (March 11th, 2021)

Golden rules for healthy kidney

  1. Stay active and keep yourself fit – maintain ideal body weight.
  2. Eat a healthy diet – reduce your salt intake, avoid processed and restaurant food.
  3. Check and control your blood pressure
  4. Check and control your blood sugars
  5. Drink adequate fluid daily – one should have sufficient fluid intake to have urine output of 1.5-2.0 litre/day which approximately amounts to 2.5-3.0 litre/day in comfortable climate.
  6. Avoid taking unnecessary non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs/painkillers – avoid over the counter painkillers (ibuprofen, diclofenac etc).
  7. Avoid/Quit smoking
  8. Get yourself tested if you are having Hypertension, Diabetes, obesity etc.

Bladder cancer

What is bladder cancer?

It is the cancer of tissues in bladder, an organ that holds urine. It occurs in both sex but most commonly in elderly men after age 60 years.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

Visible painless presence of blood in urine with clots is most common presentation of bladder cancer. Besides this other causes may include burning and painful micturition, frequent urination, retention urine etc. More advanced cancer can present with weight loss, fatigue, backache, loss of appetite etc.

What are the risk factors of developing bladder cancer?

Tobacco smoking is most common factor associated with future development of bladder cancer. Persons working in industries which process paint, dye, metal and petroleum products are more prone. Chronic bladder infection, radiation therapy, bladder stone disease are other risk factors. Family and genetic history also pose a risk to its development.

How to diagnose bladder cancer?

Ultrasound Abdomen or CT scan is most frequently used for its diagnosis. Final diagnosis is made with biopsy after bladder tumor resection with endoscopy.

What are treatment of bladder cancer ?

Sometimes TURBT (biopsy for diagnosis) is sufficient for the treatment of bladder tumor in early stage. In more high risk cases, drug therapy into the bladder may be required at periodical intervals. In cases where tumor has spread into muscle layes, cystectomy (complete bladder removal) is required. In metastatic cases chemotherapy is used.    

Whom to consult for bladder cancer ?

Initial visit to Urologist is required for the management of bladder cancer. Further need of medical oncologist, radiotherapist is required if necessary.